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Part I - Dalit Dimension, Part II - Women Dimension, Part III - Old Age Dimension, Part IV - Social Development Dimension, Part V - Peasants and Agricultural Labour. Study of sociology in India invariably relates to the composition of segments, communities, institutions, social organizations, regions, issues, problems faced by these segments, challenges uncounted in the process, social welfare programmes for the people vulnerable to problems, impact of development intervention among these segments, planned directed social change, people’s participation in development transactions, social caste and benefits including social audit, capital formation, induced development, micro level planning, and public private partnership based development initiatives in the direction of social development. However the Indian social structure perpetuating inequality arising out of caste, gender, region, people’s vulnerability to injustices, human rights implications, etc., act as stumbling block in creation of a society. Consequently India is faced with sustained inequality in view of the system of social stratification within the larger framework of the social structure. Social relationships in Indian context is marked by social standing and identification in the system of hierarchy which seem to have perpetuated strongly the phenomenon of caste based inequalities which ultimately resulted in various forms of discriminations and distance between community and determined their social status. As a result, social segment categories were based upon their ascribed status, ownership means of production particularly land and other movable and immovable properties. Consequently this has led to emergence of social evil practices between social segments categorized as upper and lower, gender inequality between male and female, regional imbalance between rural and urban in terms of development intervention and creation of infrastructure.