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In former days it was possible for a man like Johannes Müller to be a leader both in physiology and in comparative anatomy. Nowadays all scientific knowledge has increased so largely that specialization is inevitable, and every investigator is confined more and more not only to one department of science, but as a rule to one small portion of that department. In the case of such cognate sciences as physiology and comparative anatomy this limiting of the scope of view is especially deleterious, for zoology without physiology is dead, and physiology in many of its departments without comparative anatomy can advance but little. Then, again, the too exclusive study of one subject always tends to force the mind into a special groove—into a line of thought so deeply tinged with the prevalent teaching of the subject, that any suggestions which arise contrary to such teaching are apt to be dismissed at once as heretical and not worthy of further thought; whereas the same suggestion arising in the mind of one outside this particular line of thought may give rise to new and valuable scientific discoveries.Nothing but good can, in my opinion, result from the incursion of the non-specialist into the realm of the specialist, provided that the former is in earnest. Over and over again the chemist has given valuable help to the physicist, and the physicist to the chemist, so closely allied are the two subjects; so also is it with physiology and anatomy, the two subjects are so interdependent that a worker in the one may give valuable aid towards the solution of some large problem which is the special territory of the other.
Introduction, 1. The Evidence of the Central Nervous System, 2. The Evidence of the Organs of Vision, 3. The Evidence of the Skeleton , 4. The Evidence of the Respiratory Apparatus, 5. The Evidence of the Thyroid Gland, 6. The Evidence of the Olfactory Apparatus, 7. The Prosomatic Segments of Limulus and Its Allies, 8. The Segments Belonging to the Trigeminal Nerve-Group, 9. The Prosomatic Segments of Ammocoetes, 10. The Relationship of Ammocoetes to the Most Ancient Fishes— The Ostracodermata, 11. The Evidence of the Auditory Apparatus and The Organs of the Lateral Line, 12. The Region of the Spinal Cord, 13. The Notochord and Alimentary Canal, 14. The Principles of Embryology, 15. Final Remarks.