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The basic definition of stem cells is that they are the engine room of multicellular organisms for both plants and animals. These cells are surrounded by intricate signals that allow them to divide so as to self-renew and to produce a progeny to make a specific type of tissue. In 1855, Rudolph Virchow, a German pathologist, explained the idea that all living things come from other living cells and thus paved the way for the current definition of stem cells.Initially it was described that the embryonic carcinoma cells are the primitive stem cells that can make all types of body tissue—the hair, bone and the brain. In 1896, E.D.Wilson was the first person who coined the term“stem cell”. In 1950’s the stem cell science was first initiated when bone marrow was transplanted into irradiated mice and shown to reconstitute the stem cell population. Thereafter several scientists showed research interests using stem cells in the molecular processes of neurological diseases and drug delivery systems in vivo.In 2007, researchers showed the ‘universal’ type of stem cell that was isolated and characterized from mouse embryos. These embryonic stem cells divided in in vitro cultures maintaining the potential to create the tissues in one system. This research on stem cells provided a widespread data which enlightens to learn every basic concepts about stem cells.This book contains the basics of stem cells, their scientific aspects in the latest applied areas. The chapters are presented in a sequential organization for effective learning. It is hopeful that this book provides detail for the needs of students and faculty members.