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People in general and pilgrims in particular go on pilgrimages to temples, mosques, churches, gurudwaras for worshipping their religious gods and goddesses. But, tourism and pilgrimage are intertwined with little differences. Religious tourism is based on time involved and distance travelled namely short- and long-term religious tourism. The short-term type involves travel to nearby pilgrimage centres or religious conferences, or religious discourses while the long-term religious tourism involves travel to religious sites and religious conferences around the world. Pilgrimage is “the result of a vow”. India is a land of temples, mosques and churches. They play significant role in the development of any economy. Temples in India, particularly in Tamil Nadu play different roles such as redistributors of income, producer, consumer, land-owner, employer, trustee, tourist centre, religious, cultural, social and economic institution. Pilgrimage is aimed to attain moksha - the ultimate aim of individual. Moreover, pilgrimage tourism is considered as an instrument of stress relief, and it is one of the most understudied and least researched areas in tourism and leisure economics. With this backdrop, the book “Pilgrimage Tourism in India” is initiated with the following objectives viz: to examine socio-economic, cultural and environmental profiles of pilgrim tourists and local residents of Palani town and temple environs; to identify factors determining pilgrimage tourism and to examine perceptions of pilgrims on the socio-economic overheads, facilities and services exist at Palani town and temple environs; to gauge the perceptions of local residents on social, economic, cultural and environmental impacts of pilgrimage tourism to Palani town and temple environs; and to identify problems emerging from pilgrimage tourism and economic changes to local residents and to make suggestions for policy for pilgrimage tourism, benefiting both the pilgrims and the local residents of Palani town and temple environs.Contents : Introduction, Role of Tourism in Economic Development, Realities of Pilgrimage Tourism, Pilgrimage Tourism in Tamil Nadu—A Case Study, Socio-Economic Analysis of Pilgrimage Tourism, Conclusion.